for a long and vibrant life

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Being one of the leading causes of death worldwide, Cardiovascular disease steals more years of potential life than any other human condition. Fortunately, over the past thirty years significant progress has been made in the areas of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of CVD. One of the most critical advances has been the identification of the major risk factors for CVD which arose from studies such as the Framingham Heart Study and the Seven Countries Study.


Conventional risk factors for CVD include hypertension, smoking, diabetes, central obesity, high cholesterol, and low HDL cholesterol. However, in an individual the presence of only one of these factors has a low positive predictive value, with a significant number of cardiovascular events still occurring in individuals without these risk indicators being present.

Without a doubt, diet and lifestyle factors can hinder or enhance heart and vascular health. Evaluating risk preventatively can be one of the most valuable preventative things a person can do, particularly from the age of 40 on. 

Functional Testing offers us extremely vital insight into physiological and functional health, allowing us to identify change early, long before 'disease' level dysfunctions occurs.  When it comes to cardiovascular disease, the silent killer, forwarned is forearmed. As we seek to prevent disease progression by maximising health and wellness, a thorough review of test results from a functional, rather than pathological perspective, is extremely valuable.


As part of a thorough health review, we may resource Fucntional Lab testing such as those below, Bio-energetic screening methods, diet / lifestyle habits, family history, genetic profiling and general lab test results through your GP to fully understand your health status and vascular risk.

Functional Lab Testing


Blood testing of cholesterol through the doctor doesn't give us the detailed information we need to evaluate cholesterol and cardiovascular risk. There is so much more to cholesterol than we can see on a standard blood test. These two profiling reports give us so much more information from which to work. 

Cholesterol Subfractions (4028)


Liposcreen separates and quantifies all lipoprotein sub-fractions including the ‘large’, less atherogenic LDL-1 and LDL-2 and the ‘small’, highly atherogenic LDL-3 to LDL-7.   The test also measures VLDL and IDL cholesterol linked with type III dyslipidaemia and associated hyperlipoproteinaemias.


Approximately 50% of patients without heart attack have higher cholesterol levels. A considerable portion of heart attack patients have low cholesterol levels.

Individual differences exist in particular with respect to the LDL levels and here, even more importantly, in the size distribution of the LDL particles. The small LDL particles in particular have a very high atherogenic potential. Therefore, it is less important how much cholesterol a patient has but which type of cholesterol is elevated and which size distribution the cholesterol particles have. These are the parameters the risk assessment and therapy depend on.

  • Cholesterol

  • Triglycerides

  • HDL - High Density Lipoprotein

  • LDL - Low Density Lipoprotein

  • VLDL - Very Low Density Lipoprotein 

  • IDL -

  • LDL subfractions (x7)

  • Particle Size

Cardiovascular Profile Comprehensive 2 (4027) 

At present, the most advanced strategy for coronary risk assessment is therefore to combine the information of several risk factors. This multi-marker approach can enhance risk stratification, identifying those individuals with a moderate baseline risk who might benefit from aggressive risk reduction strategies. Not only are conventional risk factors assessed, but other CVD biomarkers such as lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins A & B, homocysteine, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) are included.


The Comprehensive 2 option for the Cardiovascular Profile includes Liposcreen LDL-Subfraction analytes. Liposcreen separates and quantifies all lipoprotein sub-fractions including the ‘large’, less atherogenic LDL-1 and LDL-2 and the ‘small’, highly atherogenic LDL-3 to LDL-7. The test also measures VLDL and IDL cholesterol linked with type III dyslipidaemia and associated hyperlipoproteinaemias.


Common related conditions:

  • Hypercholesterolemia

  • Insulin resistance

  • Diabetes

  • Cardiovascular disease

  • Statin therapy


Tested :

  • Triglycerides

  • HDL

  • LDL

  • ratios

  • VLDL

  • IDL

  • LDL Subfractions (x7)

  • Fasting Glucose

  • Lipoprotein (a)

  • Apolipoproteins A & B

  • Homocysteine

  • Fibrinogen

  • C-reactive protein (CRP).

Personalised Health Care

Each person is an individual, with their own unique lifestyle factors and needs. We treat each person as an individual, looking at causative drivers, nutritional factors, food intolerances and medical tests, to help find the best way forward for you. 

Call to discuss your needs today.


Monica Williams  0409 188 173

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WEBSITE DISCLAIMER : Please note that everything on this website is based on MY OPINION, and my personal experience, and research interpreted through my personal value system. Nothing here is intended to represent diagnostic information or 'disease' treatment. All information is presented as educative musings, not science-based or medical indoctrination.  We believe that the body self-heals when supported optimally. We make no claims, medical or otherwise, and we are not a substitute for medical care. Always see your medical professional for personalised advice.

© 2020 Healthier By Choice. 

The information on this website are the personal musings of the owner, and do not constitute medical advice.